Contaminantes emergentes. Problemática ambiental asociada al uso de antibióticos. Nuevas técnicas de detección, remediación y perspectivas de legislación en América Latina

Jessica Meléndez-Marmolejo, Yair García-Saavedra, Vanessa Galván-Romero, Lorena Díaz de León-Martínez, Karla Vargas-Berrones, Jesus Mejía-Saavedra, Rogelio Flores Ramírez

Resumen


Los antibióticos son fármacos considerados como contaminantes emergentes, usados para el tratamiento de enfermedades bacterianas, en salud humana y veterinaria. Los antibióticos al ser metabolizados incompletamente llegan a las aguas residuales a través de las heces fecales y orina, añadiendo la contaminación causada por su mala disposición final, efluentes hospitalarios y algunas industrias, llegando a las plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales, en donde no son tratados adecuadamente por la falta de monitoreo y su normatividad, además de que se encuentran en concentraciones trazas y ultra trazas lo que dificulta su monitorización. Los antibióticos en el ambiente pueden generar genes de resistencia bacteriana, disminuir diversidad microbiana, y ser tóxicos para algunos animales como peces e invertebrados. En América Latina existen muy pocos estudios sobre el monitoreo de los fármacos, sin embargo, en algunos de ellos se ha visto que las concentraciones ambientales llegan a ser mayores en algunos cuerpos de agua que en aguas residuales. Esta revisión plantea visibilizar la problemática ambiental de los antibióticos en América Latina, desde la falta de monitorización hasta la nula regulación ambiental que existe en estos países.

Palabras clave


antibióticos; contaminantes emergentes; polímeros de impresión molecular; resistencia bacteriana

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